VOL. 9 (2008)
text of each
available in PDF format. CD with full texts could be ordered on our web
All articles have been reviewed by the members of Scientific Board.
The development of biofuels production in
Poland and in the World
The development of conventional biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol)
production and dilemmas connected with raw materials used for this
production were presented. Special attention was paid to the production
of new generation biofuels, which is connected with the management of
glycerine –the main by-product of transestrification process.
Investigations on the utilization of this by-product are continued but
glyceryne overproduction is still a serious problem, increasing the
costs of conventional biofuels production. The elimination of glyceryne
production stage by applying new technologies leads to new generation
biofuels. As a result it is possible to substitute raw materials from
food industry by plant waste biomass and to limit CO2 emission due to
the destruction of tropical forests for establishing palm-tree
plantation. Moreover new technologies enable improving the properties
of new biofuels and increasing the economic potential of alternative
fuels for standard oil-based fuels.
of sewage sludge in the power plant
The paper presents properties of sludge originating from Polish sewage
treatment plants. The purpose of an analysis is consideration of sewage
sludge co-firing in power plant. The influence of sludge drying on its
heat value is presented in simulation as well as possibilities to
produce a renewable energy in power plant.
of influence of the planned municipal waste incineration plant on air
quality in Cracow
Oleniacz R., Pilch M.
Building of municipal waste incineration plant is considered optimal in
the Programme of Management of Solid Waste in Krakow as well as in
proposed scenarios of Municipal Waste Management. Evaluation of impact
of the incineration plant with a capacity of 255 000 tons per year on
air quality in Krakow is presented in this work. The evaluation is
based on assumption that air pollutant emissions from the incinerator
will be at the highest allowed level resulting from emission limits for
waste incineration plants with operation time each of two planned lines
7500 hours per year. Calculation results support the thesis that
building the incineration plant of this size will not cause significant
worsening of air quality in Krakow independently of final localization.
It is recommended, however, not to place the plant near densely
in MSW management system
Polyethylene in MSW is frequently treated as a danger for natural
environment. Many re-cent undertakings aimed to minimize volume of
polyethylene fraction in MSW are pre-sented to public opinion as an
important contribution to development of MSW management system. The
basis of such a approach is that some people are convinced that
polyethylene fraction of MSW is the large part of total volume of
generated MSW and their physical and chemical properties could cause
thread to the environment as well as that PE waste is diffi-cult to
of self-purification surface of plastics with the use of microorganisms
of active deposit
Gack D. , Targowski M., Biegańska J.
The purpose of the article is to present the hypothesis concerning the
possibilities of using micro-organisms of active deposit to eliminate
the flammable fractions of oil-derived pollutants of particular
laminate layers, which are produced in fuel tanks.
The results of investigations carried out of the reduction WWA in
alternative systems of cleaning sewers revealed high effectiveness of
the biodegradation WWA through micro-organisms of active deposit and
confirmed their usefulness as a method of cleaning of laminate surface.
Accumulated in laminate oil- derived products containing harmful
chemicals, also WWW, may pose a threat to the natural environment, as
well as in the case of scrapping of fuel tanks, their irascibility and
the flammability can cause a threat to the safety of people.
The problems of disposal of fuel tanks covered with internal laminate
coat have been presented in the article. The technical
requirements of the process of modernization of tanks included in
the Regulations of Minister of Economy [1,2] have also
being taken into consideration.
According to authors', the publication will make aware of the need to
undertake examinations in order to get credible scores of depletion of
flammable fractions in the laminate. Cleaning off laminate layers of
the fabric fuel is necessary to carry out the recycling of waste, which
will emerge in the near future.
concerning co-combustion of municipal sewage sludges
Stelmach S., Wasielewski R.
At present sewage sludge management in Poland is one of the major
environmental problems. Quantity of municipal sewage sludge generated
annually in Poland in 2006 has exceeded 500 thousands Mg of d.m.
Because of its physicochemical characteristics sewage sludge may be
used as a fuel for energy recovery in different thermal installations.
There is lack of sewage sludge combustion installations in Poland, so
co-combustion of sewage sludge with coal in existing power plants seems
to be the only chance in the near future for increasing thermal methods
share among other sewage sludge management method used in the country.
The paper presents overall analysis of legislation concerning
co-combustion of sewage sludge with coal in existing power plants.
of additional carbon sources on chlorophenols degradation by strain
Wojcieszyńska D., Guzik U., Greń I.
The influence of additional, readily metabolised, carbon sources on the
degradation of dichlorophenols (2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol
and 3,4-dichlorophenol) and pentachlorophenol, by a strain Pseudomonas
sp., was examined in a mineral salts medium. The presence of glucose
and yeast extract brought about the increase of dichlorophenols
degradation rate in comparison with the bacterial cultures without an
additional carbon source. Different results were obtained when the
degradation of pentachlorophenol in the presence of additional carbon
sources was examined. The addition of yeast extract didn’t change
degradation rate of pentachlorophenol by a strain Pseudomonas sp.
compared to the bacterial cultures without an additional carbon source.
The presence of glucose or sodium citrate inhibited the
pentachlorophenol decomposition. The addition of any supplementary
carbon source to the bacterial culture with any tested chlorophenol
caused the increase of the viability of a strain Pseudomonas sp. cells.
impact of product charge on development of recycling selected
fractions of MSW
Landfill is the main neutralization method in Poland. Altogether more
than 1746031,3 thousand tons of wastes are landfilled in Poland and
every year his mount increases. According to the Statistical data, 9877
thousand tons was generated in 2007. 8987 thousand tons which makes up
90,91% was landfilled. These waste except degradation of natural
environment, field occupying and the huge financial means
designed for building and keep up the landfills, they proclaim the
potential source of secondary materials and fuels. This papers the
impact of charge product on selected of municipal solid waste
(MSW) as: glass, waste paper, metals and plastics.