All kinds of organic, plant and animal waste may become very important as regards the production of fuel.
If such kinds of waste are included into the group of biofuels, they may become a significant source of fuel for power plants. This kind of fuel may give professional power plants the following three benefits:
1. power plants shall meet the requirement concerning the production of power using renewable sources,
2. power plants shall be continuously supplied with the fuel source.
3. power plants shall gain an additional source of finance for waste utilization.
The constructed installations cannot decrease the quality of the natural environment and the environmental quality standards must be complied with
gasification – examples of new
Stelmach S., Wasielewski R., Figa J.
Selected information related to new biomass gasification processes elaborated on German market has been presented. The paper presents short descriptions of “Heatpipe reformer”, “Blauer Turm”, “Mothermik”, “IPV” and “CombiPower Process” technologies. The processes shown are based on fixed-bed and fluidized bed gasification of biomass. It should be stated that at present development of biomass gasification technologies is directed mainly on low and medium scale processes. This is caused mainly by the acquiring and transportation problems related with biomass. Development of big-scale biomass gasification plants seems to be not very perspective because of relatively high transportation cost of biomass, resulting from its low energy density.
Waste from animal production - dung - does not make important problems only apparently.This waste was use as valuable fertilizer from centuries. However, industrial animal husbandry, concentrated on small area, make dung utilisation impossible close by place of its generating. We can reduce waste mass about 80% by incineration. It eliminates every biological hazards and odours burdensomeness too. Gain energy can be used to welfare rooms heating, dung drying or steam generating. There were show results of investigations on chemical properties of ashes from dung from chicken-farms incinerating in this paper. It was makes estimate dung fitness for use as fertilizers, especially contained phosphorus availability.
Medical waste utilization could cause serious environmental impact – mainly because of its compositions and inhomogeneous structure. The most widespread method of special waste utilization is incineration. In the article case study of waste incineration installation working in Medical Waste Utili-zation Plant in Katowice has been described. Eco-energetic balance has been made. Under consideration has been taken all available data about compounds causing environmental impact. Environmental impact indicators for installation under analyze has been quoted.
We have conducted a number of research on the emission of cupric and lead during thermal dissolution of sawdust and pharmaceutical waste in the combustion process. Magnesium oxide was used as an addition to the cremator batch to reduce the metals in combustion gases. The results, showing reduction of the emission from several to several dozens per cent, reveal that waste thermal destruction processes don’t have to be linked to the jeopardy of polluting atmospheric air with heavy metals.
Comparison of thermal and flow boiler parameters and pollutant concentrations from waste wood incineration in two heating boilers- working at low thermal output
Thermal and flow boiler parameters as well as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides NOx and dust concentrations were measured downstream two manual fuel supplied central heating boilers each of 25 kW thermal output (working not in the same time). Construction of these two uncontrolled boilers was not the same, but in both cases wooden waste and waste wood incineration was performed in two steps: wood gasification and wooden gas combustion. During experiments performed in heat station , boiler combustion chambers were not filled completely with waste wood, temperature in combustion region was to low and therefore carbon monoxide concentration was very high and nitrogen oxides concentration was low (this situation appears very often in domestic heat stations, if fuel is not supplied to a boiler in time and almost all its mass is burnt out before the next part is added). The boilers were connected with water heat storage by help of mixing and piping device. Therefore the boiler water stream rate was almost constant but boiler water temperature was changing caused by unstable incineration intensity (typical for log- wood boilers). Experiments were presented and pollutant concentration values were gathered in the table for comparison as well as thermal and flow boiler parameters. Variation of selected (presented in figures) boiler parameters and pollutant concentrations, was discussed.
According to the Statistical Year-book of the
Cracow stands before necessity of englarment of waste management system to aim law regulation. Follow on analysis and society consultation one of elements of waste management system should be incineration plant. Article shows multicriterial analysis results of location of incineration plant. Multicriterial analysis was done comply different group of criteria, brief fore design and results was consult with Cracow society.