According to the year-book of State Statistics Department large part of MSW generated in Poland comes from the Silesia region. Branches which produce various amounts of MSW in Silesia are presented in the paper. The condition of MSW management system in this region is also discussed. Article include information about MSW management condition between 2000 – 2004 years.
Aufwind biogas plants and their technology
Janczur K. L., Szymandera Z.
Due to fossil fuels sources shrinking the worldwide politics more and more decidedly aims at their usage decreasing through alternative energy production enhancement. Among a wide variety of alternative energy sources the energy acquiring from biomass of agricultural wastes through methane production and utilization in biogas plants has been recently gaining increasing significance and interest. Typical Aufwind biogas installation functions basing on utilization of such wastes as: farm animals manure or distillery broth. Biogas – a mixture in 60% consisting of methane and in 40% of carbon dioxide is secreted as a result of anaerobic fermentation of wastes. The co generative production of electric and thermal energy is achieved in biogas plant through methane burning by the combustion engines and through their working heat recycling. The most economic solution to a problem of millions of tones of agricultural utilization is their usage for co generative energy production. Biogas plants enabling such production and ecological agricultural wastes treatment have became an ideal and profitable investments for a entrepreneur such as larger animal farm or distillery.
The popularity of particular ways in which sewage sludge is dealt with in different countries changes over time and mainly depends on economic factors, and also, to a large extent, on non-economic factors. As regards the latter, both environment protection and social acceptance of the way in which sludge is used, stored or burned, are crucial. Tightening of regulations concerning the storage or use of sludge in farming makes it necessary to utilize them in a thermal way, transforming their chemical energy into power. The ”KJN” technology, thermal utilization of sewage sludge, which is described in this work, makes it possible to construct an installation that works with the power industry boiler and to use the heat energy, produced as a result of sludge combustion, to produce steam.
Annually in Poland comes into being about 4500 thousand Mg of organic wastes and over 350 thousand tons dry masses of municipal sewage sludge. In most cases they are deposited on municipal landfills determining serious hazard for natural environment. This paper presents possibilities of hydrogen production from municipal organic waste and sewage sludge in the thermal two-stage process (outgassing and gasification). Experiments were carried out in low and high temperature under atmospheric pressure. The gas product during utilization was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed, hydrogen production ratios was over 20%. Hydrogen as a final product after utilization organic waste can be used directly for powering Otto engines or fuel cells achieving high thermodynamic efficiencies and relatively low environmental impacts.
The construction of municipal waste incineration plant in Krakow is an indispensable part of the waste management system in Małopolska Province. Evaluation of impact of the incineration plant with a capacity of 255 000 tons per year on air quality in Krakow is presented. The evaluation is based on assumption that air pollutant emissions from the incinerator will be at the highest allowed level resulting from emission limits for waste incineration plants with operation time each of two planned lines 7500 hours per year. Calculation results support the thesis that the incineration plant of this size will not cause significant worsening of air quality in Krakow, independently of final localization. It is recommended, however, not to place the plant near densely populated areas.
Hard coal dumping grounds are the places of disposal of coal mine industry waste. It could be treated as a important source of gas and ash emission released during exploitation and after its closure. Because of reasons quoted above – dumping grounds are frequently subject of restoration.
In the paper some facts about restoration of coal mine dumping grounds are discussed. Comparison of gas and ash emission from dumping grounds before, during and after its restoration has been presented.
Waxes – products of thermal degradation of
waste plastics – obtaining, capabilities, and application
Urbaniak W., Wasiak W., Fall J.
Thermal degradation of thermoplastic polymers, such as polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene, leads to obtaining of several gaseous and liquid products, waxes and coke. Usually, the process is performed in a way to obtain as much liquid products as possible, which in turn are used as fuel components. Relatively little attention is currently paid to production of waxes, which are practically always produced at the first stage of thermal degradation process. However, taking into account tendencies in the chemical raw materials market, increased interest in such products can be anticipated. As it was proved in this paper, waxes can be effectively produced as a result of thermal decomposition of waste plastics containing various polyolefins, and practically there is little difference between the obtained products and paraffin waxes or synthetic polyethylene waxes.
Influence of mechanical mixing processes in
grid boiler on the emission of combustion products
Jaworski T. J.
Research was carried out for the most commonly used stoker in waste incineration: forward moving and reciprocating stokers. The parameters of longitudinal and crosswise mixing has been defined and determined. The results are accompanied by many photos. In the second part of the paper - on the basis of carried out experiments – the influence of mechanical mixing – for various degrees of mixing on the stoker - of the fuel during combustion on the emission to the environment (NOx, SO2, CO, fly ash etc.) was discussed.
In the article composing of unsorted waste has been discussed as well as analysis of compost quality produced In Municipal Waste Management Company in Katowice. Composting is based on Danish technology DANO with cooperation with Austrian company MUT.
Physics and chemical analysis of compost produced in years 2001-2006 have been presented as well as results of microbiological analysis of compost produced In years 2001-2004.
The article is based on the study carried out In Chair of Waste Management and Technologies of Waste Management.