The paper deals with plasma destruction of hazardous wastes (used coolants). The experimental stand with equipment for plasma generation is presented. In the paper amperage-voltage characteristics and electric power in function of amperage are introduced. The influence of hydrogen stream in plasma gases on plasma destruction process is examined too. In the end of the paper the experimental results are summarized.
oil and used vegetable oil as feed for
production of fatty acids methyl esters (fame)
Wawrzyniak R., Fall J., Wasiak W.
The Chapter presents the basic problems related to the use of pure and used (after the use for frying) vegetable oils as initial products for obtaining fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) being a biocomponent added to diesel oil. The main reaction used for production of these esters that is transesterification by methanol, has been discussed. Possible variants of the reaction are described and critically analysed. Moreover, a review of the analytical methods used to control the process of transesterification and the products purity has been presented.
At present FAME can be produced not only from rapeseed oil but also from the oil obtained from coconut, maize, linseed, rice, sesame, sunflower, soybean, grapeseed, cucurbit seeds, which means that the qualitative and quantitative characterisation of FAME becomes an important problem.
The study presented was concerned with analysis of the contents of mono-, di- and trigliceride and glycerol in the products of transesterification of the above mentioned vegetable oils. Determinations were made by gas chromatography using a capillary column 5HT made by Quadrex and 1,2,4-butanetriol and 1,2,3-tricaproylglycerol as internal standards. Prior to the analysis the components to be determined were subjected to derivatisation with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide. The effect of the chemical composition of the oils studied on the character of the process of transesterification was also analysed.
This work presents one of the possibilities of dealing with waste from meat industry. There is presented process of production of meat-bone meal, which includes three main stages: preliminary dealing (sterilization of material), drying of material (separation of part of the fat included in material), filtration of partly dried and defatted material (separation of rest of the fat). This work also presents the analysis of meat-bone meal samples and its ashes.
Medical waste utilization could cause serious environmental impact – mainly because of its compositions and inhomogeneous structure. The most widespread method of special waste utilization is incineration.
Installation created for medical waste incineration should be designed in way that ensure the highest possible level of environmental protection.
In the article case study of waste incineration installation working in
It in this article will be discuss the collection condition and recycling of municipal wastes, costs of the logging and utilization the municipal wastes as substitutes of raw materials processes.
The latest changes of regulations on waste management have also significantly altered the approach to reuse and recycling of packaging waste, considerably rising the importance of their energetic utilization. Such method of waste utilization is however hedged about by detailed regulations, which results in searching for various solutions to enable burning of waste in the most ecologically effective way, when given legal limitations are considered. It has been described in this paper the possible influence of actual legal solutions on building and operation of logistic packaging waste management systems, in which thermal conversions is an important element of the system.
solid waste incineration – case study
Pikoń K., Galica K.
MSW utilization could cause serious environmental impact. The most widespread method of special waste utilization is landfill. That form will be restricted in the closest future due to EU regulations – mainly Landfill Directive. To meet EU requirements in
In the article case study of MSW incineration plant in
utilization of poplar chips in the central heating boiler
Thermal utilization of poplar chips, obtained from tree branches sanitary cutting in the city, was conducted in the boiler of 25 kW heat power, which was working with the help of the 900 heat storage. The thermal utilization was carrier out as a two step process: pyrolisis and combustion of wooden gas. Following parameters were measured every three minutes: temperature in pyrolisis zone of the combustion chamber and in the region where wooden gas was burnt; temperature, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and dust concentrations and air excess rate in flue gases in the stack. Thermocouples and gas analyzer with electrochemical cells were used for this purpose. Temperature and volume stream rate of the boiler water, heat power and heat carried by boiler water, were measured using ultrasonic heat meter. Heat efficiency was calculated. Experiments were performed for several portions of the fuel, added manually to the boiler, which was previously preheated.
In the paper problems of catalytic agents mounted on different carriers have been presented. Described experiments were based on the stand equipped with tube (diameter