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Heat Pumps with Two-Phase Condensing Ejector
paper describes the development of a novel vapor compression cycle for
with regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow
which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The new cycle
includes a second step compression by an ejector device, which combines
compression with simultaneous throttling of the liquid. The compressor
compresses the vapor to approximately 2/3 of the final pressure and
compression is provided in an ejector, thus the amount of mechanical
required by a compressor is reduced and the efficiency is increased.
Investigations described here were performed under the funding from the
Department of Energy. The thermodynamic model was developed for R22
refrigerant, showing a possible efficiency improvement of 38% as
the traditional vapor compression cycle. The theoretical work was
building a 10 kW prototype and practical demonstration of 16% energy
the first attempt.
support systems based on the Life Cycle
Inventory (LCI) – part of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Municipal
Management Case Study
for pyrolysis method was based on the pyrolysis facility designs for
Konin, in Poland. Two different scenarios of the economic feasibility
studied for the municipal solid waste process via incineration based on
pyrolysis. First scenario used the American technology of the
process, and the other the Australian pyrolysis process equipment. The
analysis methods used to study the operational total costs of the
new equipments, was discounted cash
flow rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) of the new and
investments.In this paper, the Monte
Carlo (MC) simulation method was used for the sensitivity analysis. The
Carlo sampling was done using an Excel spreadsheet modified to develop
scenarios for inputs given the probability distributions, means values,
and Crystal Ball®, a software package offered by Decisionnering,
random numbers for a probability distribution over the entire range of
values, based on the assumption variables.
Mass transport on the
mechanical grate of
waste thermal treatment devices
Combustion process – especially waste combustion – seems to be very
easy to organize. In fact, it is very complex and could be
carried out in different ways to obtain highest possible ecological,
energetic and economic efficiency. Calculation method of real time of
waste residence in combustion chamber – elaborated as computer program
is described in this paper. Quoted above computer program combines link
measurement data and mathematical formulae; tests carried out by author
in Silesian University of Technology, Chair of Technologies and
Installations for Waste Management in year 2006 on laboratory stand for
testing advancing and reciprocating grates and compare it with
theoretical equations. Regression model and method of calculation of
average time of residence on the grate is described. Difference between
time of residence in ideal and real reactor is the result of stochastic
character of the second one. Because in the model mechanical grate is
treated as real reactor flow it is adequate to the real conditions and
can be intermediate compared to ideal flow models. Quoted above flow
model described in the paper includes mixing phenomenon (longitudinal
dispersion). Mixing intensity - which is linked with time of residence
on the grate - depends on: type of grate, angle of inclination, grate
speed, grate length and sort of transported material.
of mobility polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil
J. W., Czop M.
research were carried out to learn the distribution process of PAH in
with different physical and chemical properties. In research three
PAH were used (fluorence, anthracene, pyrene) as a water solution.
movement of substances down the ground was taken into consideration.
mounded loosely and in non-saturated state (porous structure with water
inside). Time of experiment was established for 30 days to avoid and
biodegradation of substances introduced into soil. Concentration of
substances in specified points in soil profile were measured to obtain
changes in time. Some of those results are presented in this paper.
waste incineration – case study
waste utilization could cause serious environmental impact – mainly
its compositions and inhomogeneous structure. The most widespread
method of special waste utilization is incineration. Installation
waste combustion should be constructed in way that ensure the highest
level of environmental protection. In the article case study of waste
incineration installation SARPI has been quoted. Eco-energetic balance
made. Under consideration has been taken all available data about
causing environmental impact. Environmental impact indicators for
under analyze has been made.
- Waste works
on waste system
M., Pabjan. Z., Bartczak M.
transformation system works as a system of alternative fuels
can use that alternative fuels to transformation of other kinds of
technological line is created idea : „ WWW System - Waste Works on
„.In consistency WWW System works as a „ all waste liquidation system”.
paper is described one of possible of WWW System with tires
process into gas fuel using to transformation of waste plastic
liquid fuel components, etc. Excess of fuel or energy production is
sold on the
aspects of industrial
Alwaeli M., Langosz K.
Industrial wastes proclaims more of hazard source for environment.
Utilization as secondary materials wastes assure many economic
effects as: enlargement the raw material base, decrease
capital-absorptivity and energy-
absorptivity, materials expenditure and costs of production. An article
gives an description of industrial wastes management
economics aspects. Differences
between wastes and primary raw materials properties are not
times these changes overcome only obverse manufactory form. The reason
primary raw materials often have not undergo fundamentally changes
production process. (Scarp metal stay metal and rubbish stay paper). An
gives an description of connected costs
of use industrial wastes as substitute of raw materials.
modelling of biomass combustion process on mechanical stoker
J., Czekalski R.
presents model of biomass combustion process on a mechanical stoker.
two-dimensional process (which is simplification of real,
three-dimensional one) was substituted
with one-dimensional unsteady process of combustion of separated bed
The model considers drying, devolatilization, combustion of particles
reactions in gaseous phase. Results of the computation process are
temperatures of solid and gaseous phase, as well as gas composition in
which corresponds to the values of those parameters in different places
mechanical stoker. The further part of investigation are laboratory
measurements of the process.
granulated adsorbents production on the basis of chars from used car
Stelmach S., Wasielewski R., Figa J.
The results of investigations of granulated
(extruded) active carbon production from fluffy char obtained from the
thermolysis of used car tyres as a feedstock were presented. The
of the char mixtures with chosen binders were carried out. The
forming mixture was optimized in order to obtain maximum mechanical
the product. Next, the recarbonization as well as steam activation of
product were carried out. The obtained adsorbent had weak adsorptional
properties and low mechanical strenghth. From binders chosen to
the best binder for dusty char agglomeration was molasses.