VOL. 3 (2006)

Full text of each article is available in PDF format. CD with full texts could be ordered on our web site.
All articles have been reviewed by the members of Scientific Board.

Assessment possibility of utilization of selected steel mill and machine – building industry waste as a component of concrete for gamma radiation shielding
(in Polish)
Alwaeli M.
In this work the technical parameters and radiation shielding properties of concrete with steel mill and machine – building industry waste were tested. In laboratory tests the granulated slag from zinc mill “Miasteczko ¦l±skie” in Tarnowskie Góry, steel chips and scale from Baildon mill in Katowice was added to ordinary concrete as aggregate. The compressive stress and gamma radiation attenuation was measured for various composition of the concrete.

Assesment  of MSW landfill  gas  afluence

(in Polish)
Wandrasz J. W., Landrat M.
Method of assessment of MSW landfill gas affluence is presented. Mathematic model of  methane fermentation may be used in any time of dump operation as well as after its closing. On this basis analysis of gas utilization or management possibilities can be made.

Environmental Assessment of Thermal Methods of Waste Treatment in Model Waste Management Scenarios

(in Polish)
Maćków I., Sebastian M., Szpadt R.
The presented results stem from the LCA-IWM project founded by the European Commission’s 5th Framework Programme, which aims at development of a Waste Prognostic Tool and a Municipal Waste Management System (MWMS) Assessment Tool. These tools enable to plan and to assess the sustainability of household waste management in European cities, in particular cities from new EU Member States. In this paper the MWMSs with thermal treatment of waste (separation of High Caloric Fraction and its usage as RDF or residual waste incineration) in case study for Wrocław are discussed.
To prediction of waste quantity and quality the Waste Prognostic Tool based on input parameters consisting of current amount and composition of household waste and of some general socio-economic indicators as well as of historical data on these factors  is used.
For the environmental assessment criteria both general and specific European waste policy targets were identified. The general targets of the European waste management policy well corresponds with the two major objectives of environmental sustainability in waste management:
-    conservation of resources; 
-    pollution prevention.
In order to enable an environmental evaluation of MWMS the following qualitative criteria were determined :
-    depletion of abiotic resources
-    climate change
-    photo-oxidant formation
-    acidification
-    eutrophisation
During one session it is possible to develop and  to access 4 scenarios  including the following steps in waste management: storage of waste at households, collection, transport and waste treatment options.

Best Available Technique and policy of sustainable development
(in Polish)
Pikoń K.
BAT is fairly new notion introduced in various countries all over the world. Unfortunately some details are still undefined. BREFs are still under construction and all reports contain many undefined areas.
We don't know what method should be used to determine economic viability (EV), what properties could distinguish economically viable BAT form economically not viable one and who should determine those properties. Finally - what would be system boundaries: at what economic efficiency EV would be determined and whether we would analyze whole enterprise or only an installation. Despite some problems BAT could be useful tool in policy of sustainable development support in all branches of economy. It could change traditional model of environmental protection based on emission limits and introduce efficient pro-ecological self-steering mechanism.
Main goal should be encourage enterprises to introduce new environmental protection solutions. It could be done only if it would be based on economic philosophy of gains and benefits. Important problem in eco-development policy based on BAT seems to be pricing of ecological effects of emission. To do it well we should take into consideration large amount of data but problems of that type are still unsolved in global scale. System based on philosophy of Pigouvian tax - shown in the paper - is neutral for whole branches of economy in economical sense. Mechanism of Pigouvian tax could indicate threshold X0, which in definition of BAT is still undefined, and introduce self steering mechanism which would encourage enterprises to introduce new standards in environmental protection.

Fuels produced in agriculture

(in Polish)
Wyżgolik B., Brz±kalik K., Nowak B.
The rural area development projects should comprise methods for production of energy carriers. The problem becomes especially important for areas environmentally degraded by the human activity. In the paper, various plant species, possible to be used as renewable sources of energy, are presented. The specific diversity among these plants provides desirable biodiversity and enables proper management of a habitat. Cultivating such plants may provide industry with many kinds of energetic materials. Alien species, not occurring in our climatic zone, such as Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), are also among the plants cultivated for the energetic purposes. These species need to be more thoroughly investigated. Among the presented plants, the most efficient energy carriers are the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris sachcccharifera), Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and poplar (Populus sp.).

Diesel engine fuels from used vegetable oil and animal fat
(in Polish)
Klecan R.
The transestrification process of vegetables oils and fats by low-molecular aliphatic alcohols is subject of people interest due to possibility of esters production as a diesel fuels. It is possible to operate process called alkoholysis in mild condition and low energy consumption using wasted and useless in food industry vegetable oils and animal fats, particularly tallow. In that paper the industrial solutions and actual knowledge about diesel fuel production from vegetable oils and animal fats were presented. Mixtures of rape oil with wasted vegetable oils are the most frequently used. The solutions of Austrian Vogel&Noot GmbH, Germans ECB Enviro Berlin AG, Jenamethyl AG, Meridas AG Jena, Canadian Biox and Polish from Wroclaw University were presented.These species need to be more thoroughly investigated. Among the presented plants, the most efficient energy carriers are the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris sachcccharifera), Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and poplar (Populus sp.).

Using capability analysis of powders of utilized communition origin as a combustible emulsion explosives compone
(in Polish)
Maranda A.
In this work there are presented results of the detonation and thermochemical parameters examination of the emulsion explosives containant smokeless powder of deelaborated ammunition origin. It was demonstrate that smokeless powders are capable of using as high-energy component of analysed explosives. Such solution is safe, ecological and economically well-founded form of utilization of the explosives descending from ammunition taken out of the military stocks.

Ashes  from  Combustion  of  Meat  Industry  Waste and  Sewage  Sludge
(in Polish)
Wzorek Z., Lenik E., Gorazda K., Wilkosz A.
The population growth, urban and industry development cause the increased pollution with different substances which contain phosphorus. It contributes to the increased demand for its compounds, increasing the use of its natural resources, which is considered to be the most accessible source. The forecasts regarding the world natural reserves of phosphorus deposits are saying that more than 50% of resources used currently will be exhausted within next 60-70 years. That is why the world’s attention is focused on the alternative phosphorus source, in which sewage sludge and met industry waste. This paper presents results of research on co-combustion of sewage sludge and meat﷓and﷓bone mills. The influence of temperature and waste constitution on properties of obtained ash was determined. The analysis of fertilizing usability of ash was also investigated with particular consideration on phosphorus content and usability. Depending on temperature and composition of combusting waste phosphorus usability at ash reached 65%

Analysis of usefulness of dump gas as bio fuel
(in Polish)
Bukowska M. A., Szymański W.
This article presents the researches, which were conducted on a municipal waste disposal gas for the waste dump. The physic-chemical examinations on evaporating gases were done to describe the basis parameters in order to estimate the usefulness of received gases as a biogas for the further use. The result of the above analysis is a description if the acquisitioned gas meets conditions of the parameters of fuel-gas and if it can be used as a basic or supplementary fuel for the heating aims. On the bases of the average parameters and the quantity of generated gases the average energetic value was calculated.