VOL. 3 (2006)
Full text of each
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All articles have been reviewed by the members of Scientific Board.
possibility of utilization of selected steel mill and machine –
building industry waste as a component of concrete for gamma radiation
In this work the technical parameters and radiation shielding
properties of concrete with steel mill and machine – building industry
waste were tested. In laboratory tests the granulated slag from zinc
mill “Miasteczko ¦l±skie” in Tarnowskie Góry, steel chips and scale
from Baildon mill in Katowice was added to ordinary concrete as
aggregate. The compressive stress and gamma radiation attenuation was
measured for various composition of the concrete.
of MSW landfill gas afluence
Wandrasz J. W., Landrat M.
Method of assessment of MSW landfill gas affluence is presented.
Mathematic model of methane fermentation may be used in any time
of dump operation as well as after its closing. On this basis analysis
of gas utilization or management possibilities can be made.
Assessment of Thermal Methods of Waste Treatment in Model Waste
Maćków I., Sebastian M., Szpadt R.
The presented results stem from the LCA-IWM project founded by the
European Commission’s 5th Framework Programme, which aims at
development of a Waste Prognostic Tool and a Municipal Waste Management
System (MWMS) Assessment Tool. These tools enable to plan and to assess
the sustainability of household waste management in European cities, in
particular cities from new EU Member States. In this paper the MWMSs
with thermal treatment of waste (separation of High Caloric Fraction
and its usage as RDF or residual waste incineration) in case study for
Wrocław are discussed.
To prediction of waste quantity and quality the Waste Prognostic Tool
based on input parameters consisting of current amount and composition
of household waste and of some general socio-economic indicators as
well as of historical data on these factors is used.
For the environmental assessment criteria both general and specific
European waste policy targets were identified. The general targets of
the European waste management policy well corresponds with the two
major objectives of environmental sustainability in waste management:
- conservation of resources;
- pollution prevention.
In order to enable an environmental evaluation of MWMS the following
qualitative criteria were determined :
- depletion of abiotic resources
- climate change
- photo-oxidant formation
During one session it is possible to develop and to access 4
scenarios including the following steps in waste management:
storage of waste at households, collection, transport and waste
Available Technique and policy of sustainable development
BAT is fairly new notion introduced in various countries all over the
world. Unfortunately some details are still undefined. BREFs are still
under construction and all reports contain many undefined areas.
We don't know what method should be used to determine economic
viability (EV), what properties could distinguish economically viable
BAT form economically not viable one and who should determine those
properties. Finally - what would be system boundaries: at what economic
efficiency EV would be determined and whether we would analyze whole
enterprise or only an installation. Despite some problems BAT could be
useful tool in policy of sustainable development support in all
branches of economy. It could change traditional model of environmental
protection based on emission limits and introduce efficient
pro-ecological self-steering mechanism.
Main goal should be encourage enterprises to introduce new
environmental protection solutions. It could be done only if it would
be based on economic philosophy of gains and benefits. Important
problem in eco-development policy based on BAT seems to be pricing of
ecological effects of emission. To do it well we should take into
consideration large amount of data but problems of that type are still
unsolved in global scale. System based on philosophy of Pigouvian tax -
shown in the paper - is neutral for whole branches of economy in
economical sense. Mechanism of Pigouvian tax could indicate threshold
X0, which in definition of BAT is still undefined, and introduce self
steering mechanism which would encourage enterprises to introduce new
standards in environmental protection.
Fuels produced in agriculture
Brz±kalik K., Nowak B.
The rural area development projects should comprise methods for
production of energy carriers. The problem becomes especially important
for areas environmentally degraded by the human activity. In the paper,
various plant species, possible to be used as renewable sources of
energy, are presented. The specific diversity among these plants
provides desirable biodiversity and enables proper management of a
habitat. Cultivating such plants may provide industry with many kinds
of energetic materials. Alien species, not occurring in our climatic
zone, such as Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), are also among the
plants cultivated for the energetic purposes. These species need to be
more thoroughly investigated. Among the presented plants, the most
efficient energy carriers are the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris
sachcccharifera), Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and poplar
fuels from used vegetable oil and animal fat
The transestrification process of vegetables oils and fats by
low-molecular aliphatic alcohols is subject of people interest due to
possibility of esters production as a diesel fuels. It is possible to
operate process called alkoholysis in mild condition and low energy
consumption using wasted and useless in food industry vegetable oils
and animal fats, particularly tallow. In that paper the industrial
solutions and actual knowledge about diesel fuel production from
vegetable oils and animal fats were presented. Mixtures of rape oil
with wasted vegetable oils are the most frequently used. The solutions
of Austrian Vogel&Noot GmbH, Germans ECB Enviro Berlin AG,
Jenamethyl AG, Meridas AG Jena, Canadian Biox and Polish from Wroclaw
University were presented.These species need to be more thoroughly
investigated. Among the presented plants, the most efficient energy
carriers are the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris sachcccharifera), Miscanthus
(Miscanthus x giganteus) and poplar (Populus sp.).
capability analysis of powders of utilized communition origin as a
combustible emulsion explosives compone
In this work there are presented results of the detonation and
thermochemical parameters examination of the emulsion explosives
containant smokeless powder of deelaborated ammunition origin. It was
demonstrate that smokeless powders are capable of using as high-energy
component of analysed explosives. Such solution is safe, ecological and
economically well-founded form of utilization of the explosives
descending from ammunition taken out of the military stocks.
from Combustion of Meat Industry Waste
and Sewage Sludge
Wzorek Z., Lenik E., Gorazda K.,
The population growth, urban and industry development cause the
increased pollution with different substances which contain phosphorus.
It contributes to the increased demand for its compounds, increasing
the use of its natural resources, which is considered to be the most
accessible source. The forecasts regarding the world natural reserves
of phosphorus deposits are saying that more than 50% of resources used
currently will be exhausted within next 60-70 years. That is why the
world’s attention is focused on the alternative phosphorus source, in
which sewage sludge and met industry waste. This paper presents results
of research on co-combustion of sewage sludge and meatandbone mills.
The influence of temperature and waste constitution on properties of
obtained ash was determined. The analysis of fertilizing usability of
ash was also investigated with particular consideration on phosphorus
content and usability. Depending on temperature and composition of
combusting waste phosphorus usability at ash reached 65%
usefulness of dump gas as bio fuel
Bukowska M. A., Szymański W.
This article presents the researches, which were conducted on a
municipal waste disposal gas for the waste dump. The
physic-chemical examinations on evaporating gases were done to describe
the basis parameters in order to estimate the usefulness of received
gases as a biogas for the further use. The result of the above analysis
is a description if the acquisitioned gas meets conditions of the
parameters of fuel-gas and if it can be used as a basic or
supplementary fuel for the heating aims. On the bases of the average
parameters and the quantity of generated gases the average energetic
value was calculated.