VOL. 13 issue 1 (2011)
text of each
available in PDF format. CD with full texts could be ordered on our web
All articles have been reviewed by the members of Scientific Board.
Fitting-out of phase with production biofuel glicerynowej
Melcer A., Klugmann-Radziemska E., Ciunel K.
resources, thereby drastically increased prices and global
warming and environmental pollution causes great interest in renewable
energy sources and niekonwencjonalnymi [1, 2]. One such sources of
renewable energy is biofuel diesel fuel. biodiesel, derived from the
Transesterification of triglycerides of plant and animal oils with
methanol. The expected increase in production. biodesla, both in Poland
and worldwide, involves the need for management of by-products of the
process, which can significantly contribute to lower prices of fuels.
An important by-product arising during the production of biofuels is
phase glicerynowa containing in its composition glycerol
(propane-1,2,3-triol)-50-60% methanol, mono-, diglyceride, free fatty
acids and soap . This capacity planning phase glicerynowej in
purified and crude.
possibility of co-combustion of sewage sludge in coal-fired
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the possibility of
co-combustion of municipal sewage sludge with hard coal in power
station boilers (WR-25, CFB-420 and OP-230). The analysis takes into
account different mass fraction of sludge in the test fuel blend (0%
-20%) and a wide range of changes in excess air ratio λ in the
combustion chamber (1.1-1.5). Based on the obtained results, ecological
and economic analyses of co-combustion process were carried out.
CO, CxHy, NO, NOx and dust concentrations from a heat station
supplied with rape cakes
CO, CxHy, NO, NOx and dust concentrations from a cherry stones
supplied boiler with a nominal heat output of 15 kW were researched in
a heat station. In the entrained flow furnace designed for firing wood
pellets, melting and sintering ash phenomenon could not be successfully
avoided. In comparison to wood pellet combustion, the observed boiler
heat efficiency was lower. CO concentration was relatively high but did
not exceed the permitted value. The impact of temperature in the
combustion chamber and oxygen concentration on pollutant concentrations
was determined. Pollutant emission indicators were estimated.
in Poland as an element of sustainable development
Biegańska J., Ciuła J.
The article describes municipal waste management system currently
operating in Poland and proposes to introduce a new model of municipal
waste management. The proposed solution is aimed at facilitating
municipal waste management system to ensure compliance with the EU law
and requirements of sustainable development.
iron and non-iron metal in Poland
Czop M., Pancewicz K.
Iron and non-iron metal wastes are considered on the international
market as strategic materials because that are based on the use of the
same raw material for the production of other, totally new products.
This is an advantage not only from the financial but also from the
ecological point of view. In this way we protect natural deposits of
raw material and we contribute to the reduction of wastes which
pollute all sorts of waste dumps. Hence, we aim at obtaing the most
effective recovery of metal from the waste stream. Scrap market as well
as market of other materials are very variable and depend on demands
and supplies in given period of time. Scrap collecting system is very
common and that is the reason why there are many companies and
institutions which deal with scrap traffic.The article presents main
markets of iron and non-iron metal acquisition in Poland.