VOL. 12 issue 2 (2010)
text of each
available in PDF format. CD with full texts could be ordered on our web
All articles have been reviewed by the members of Scientific Board.
of poly(lactide) (PLA)
Nowak B., Pająk J.
Poly(lactide) PLA is completely biodegradable, linear aliphatic
polyester obtained from lactic acid. Materials made from PLA exhibit
the characteristics of traditional plastic but contrary to them they
are decomposed via biochemical processes. Based on the literature
structure, properties and sources of lactic acid - a substrate for the
production of PLA were presented. The biodegradation conditions and
microorganisms and enzymes involved in this process were shown. Brief
description of the application of PLA was given.
of coal end Bio-CONOx
The paper presents the properties of Bio-CONOx preparation, interesting
because of its capacities to limit NOx emission in high temperature
processes of solid fuel conversion e.g. coal. At the same time, the
preparation causes higher CO concentration in generator gases, which
results in considerable increasing their lower heating value. Such
preparation properties have been proved in test research in which the
coal was co-firing with addition of the Bio-CONOx preparation.
of biological properties of oats straw and polyethylene briquettes
A subject of the article is evaluation of the biological stability in
the lights of purification of such plant materials as oats straw and
briquettes which were made on the basis of the above mentioned plant
component and polyethylene with various grade of size reduction.
Low density polyethylene which was applied, fulfils the role of the
binding agent in the briquette. In order to determine biological
properties, tests have been performed with the scanning microscope.
Internal structure after and before briquetting have been compared to
obtain data on the way the components are arranged in the briquettes.
The influence of the environmental conditions on the tested samples has
also been checked. For this purpose testing material was stored for the
period of 3 months in two differed simulated conditions which could
occur during real storage. After this time passed obtained, test
results were checked, the results were discussed and presented in the
form of the scanning pictures.
Speciation of heavy metals in sewage
sludge for example waste water treatment plant in Strawczyn
Latosińska J., Gawdzik J.
According to the BCR extraction method has been done the
speciation of sewage sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants in
Strawczyn. The conducted sequential analysis proved the presence of
heavy metals in all fractions, however, it should be firmly emphasised
that organometallic connections as well as aluminosilicate are the
predominant forms of occurrence of analyzed metals, which is the
fraction III as well as fraction IV. The content of heavy metals in
mobile fractions (I and II) is very low and it did not exceed 28 % of
the total mass of the studied metals for any of the metals. Also the
results of investigations of sewage sludge confirmed the tendency
of concentration of heavy metals in immobile fractions, here connected
with aluminosilicate. Consequently, it may be stated that the
predominant forms of occurrence of studied heavy metals are immobile.
It was shown that the total content of heavy metals in sewage sludge is
not - against commonly accepted opinions – the objective assessment
criterion of the environmental threat.
Management of Public Procurement in
Terms of „Green Orders” of Components of a Building
The paper discusses management of “green” public procurement related to
components of a building. It presents proposals of environmental
criteria, that have been analyzed in their essence, and which are used
for assessment of components of a building. Attention was drawn to the
need of applying a universal environmental instrument, namely LCA into
environmental criteria of public procurement. The justification for the
necessity of using LCA analysis refers to basic normative documents as
well as environmental policy.
and cost-effectiveness of selected metal production waste utilization
Production of metal and metal products companions production of various
waste as: toxic waste (liquids and gases), harmful solid waste and
semi-liquid as well as emission dusts, noise and heat. The variety of
branch of industry, the applied technologies technical solutions
requires very selective glance on the problem of industrial waste
treatment as well as applied methods of their utilization. During the
last age, the problem of waste removing and neutralizing stood very
important element of environment protection and waste management of all
the world. The rapid economic development beside unquestionable
advantages, it also creates unfavorable of serious environmental
problems. The violent increase of quantity of industrial and
municipal wastes is one of them. In this work the state of waste
management of metal and metal products production, ways of utilization
of selected waste as: scale, granulated slag, steel chips and annealing
scale were discussed. In this work, the assessment of effectiveness
of these waste utilization was included. The data shows that
mining industry is one of the branches of industry which generated the
greatest amounts of industrial waste. According to the statistical
data, the quantities of waste utilization as secondary materials
increased. The data shows also that landfilling is still the cheapest
and most common method of industrial waste neutralization in Poland