VOL. 11 issue 4 (2009)
text of each
available in PDF format. CD with full texts could be ordered on our web
All articles have been reviewed by the members of Scientific Board.
of REACH decree regulations with reference to waste
Harat A., Biegańska J.,
The problems connected with range of REACH decree has been discussed in
this paper. Waste is explicitly excluded from REACH by not being
classified as a substance, preparation, or article (Article 2(2) of the
REACH Regulation). You don't need to register with REACH if you are
simply producing waste. However, if you are reprocessing waste and
recovering it, REACH applies from the point where waste ceases to be
waste and it is placed on the market. Regained substance is a new
product with all consequences provided by REACH decree. Practical
difficulties are problems with qualification of a moment in
technological process in which waste become regained substance. In this
case the detailed analyze of technological process should be done.
Helpful can be also the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) conception.
biomass for heating destinations in the single-family housing
Kwiatkowski M., Polak R.
The paper analyzes the possibility to replace the natural gas heating
system in a single-family house with the system based on the
utilization of biomass for the purpose of producing energy. The system
was developed taking into account a number of criteria, such as the
cost of purchasing, transporting and storing the fuel, the cost of
installing the system and the comfort of its daily use. A heating
system was developed and installed on the basis of the presented
analysis and calculations, and the conclusions from the utility tests
of that system are presented in the paper. The summary involves an
economic analysis of the project, defining of the scope of usage of the
system and a discussion of the pros and cons of the proposed solutions.
analysis of formed the fuels from
J., Sadowski K., Poskrobko S.
The paper presents an calculation result for blending to obtain
three-component waste derived fuels. In the numerical example taken
under consideration components as cellulose-pulp, waste-paper refuse
and fine coal. The knowledge of the resulting mass composition of the
formed fuels is the starting point of stoichiometric calculations for
complete and perfect combustion.
material and energy recovery
from sewage sludge during production of sintered materials
Latosińska J., Żygadło M.
It was shown, that sewage sludge can be used as expanding agent of the
LECA mass. The addition of sewage sludge increases the total porosity
and decreases bulk density of a sinter. The increased mass
of sewage sludge does not have visible influence upon closed porosity.
Addition of sewage sludge to raw material used in LECA production
enables decreasing burning temperature for the maintained operational
parameters of a lightweight aggregate. The optimum content of
sewage sludge added to raw material used in LECA production
is 5 to 10% of dry mass. Laboratory studies of the emission level of
gas pollutants from the combustion of sewage sludge, clay, sludge-clay
and their composition are presented. Emission levels of CO2, CO, NO,
SO2, H2S, CxHy were determined. The study shows that the addition
of clay to ceramic mass decreases the emission of gases.
on medical services market and
their influence on quantity of genrated waste
Tęcza B., Wandrasz J. W.
The year 1997 was the most important cause the term medical
waste come into view of the Polish legislation. But the real battle for
the management of this waste has just started. The first step was to
increase awareness among medical staff that this is just a waste and
has played a huge role the State Sanitary Inspection. However, after
several years of great ease of disposal of hospital waste in Group 18
and the lack of segregation resulted in classifying everything as a
waste in a hospital as a medical device. At the same time, further
reform of the health care and the emergence of rapidly growing private
clinic and the evolution of packaging and methods of treatment that
causes the amount of waste in medical institutions continue to grow.
Research conducted over the period 2000-2005 showed a trend not only
changes the amount of waste generated in the various medical groups but
also and above all true of infectious medical waste in their total
stream. Hence, estimation of cutting costs after the introduction of a
waste segregation system shows the tremendous possibilities of this
approach. Optimal conditions for the introduction of segregation
followed by the full privatization of health services and managing the
account through the account of the costs and not political.
and composition of municipal
waste generated in households of Polish cities
den Boer E., Czarnecka W., Kowalski Z., Kulczycka J., Szpadt R.
The review of methods for conducting quantitative and
composition analyses of municipal waste, and the results of the
research for household waste compositions conducted in Poland in recent
years are presented in the paper. The results of the research in large
Polish cities indicate great variability, which could be affected by a
number of factors, such as various methods and places for sample
collection, various methods for tests, fractional character of most of
the studies (studies carried out only in some periods during a year).
Consequently, it is neither possible to measurably compare their
results, nor to generalise them, for the indices are provided for large
cities. It its therefore necessary to standardise methodology for such
analysis in Europe, including local specifics, to allow comparison of