VOL. 11 issue 1 (2009)
text of each
available in PDF format. CD with full texts could be ordered on our web
All articles have been reviewed by the members of Scientific Board.
Environmental impact of recycling of glass
Pikoń K., Gatnar M.
Owing to EU regulations recycling of glass seems to be one of the most
important challenges for polish waste management system which should be
completely modified in the closest future. The Packaging Directive
includes thresholds of required levels of recycling of glass packaging
waste. That is why special attention should be paid to environmental
impact glass recycling. On the basis of LCA various aspects of glass
recycling has been shown. The recycling of glass was analyzed from the
energetic point of view – the electricity and gas consumption was
described in the article. The emissions from specific stages of LCA of
glass recycling were shown. The comparison of production of glass
bottle from virgin materials and from recycled material was shown.
of coal – sewage sludge mixtures
Pyrolysis is one of the thermal processes and knowing its parameters is
important for technology of waste utilization. Pyrolysis and
simultaneous process of degassing (devolatilization) play important
role in incineration process of waste since the products are
combustible and take part in ignition and oxidation of fuel. In the
paper important thermal parameters are determined for coal, sewage
sludge and their mixture of various proportions. Devolatization ratio,
heating value of char and heating values of volatile matter were
determined by measurements or by subsequent calculations.
board waste thermal conversion. regulations and technology
In Poland, wooden board waste cannot be combusted in the heating and
industrial boilers, but in special combustion chambers. Wooden industry
factories don’t use these chambers, because they are expensive. Thermal
conversion of wooden board waste in Germany is possible in the boilers
of thermal output above 15 kW, if the waste doesn’t contain: PCB,
chloroorganic substances and wood protection substances.
Considerations, how resolve this problem in Poland , was presented.
on combustion on waste vegetable oils
Polok J., Ścierski W.
In the article results of research on combustion on waste vegetable
oils are presented. The laboratory tests were carried out in medium
power universal air-oil burner. During tests following parameters were
determined: the lowest fuel temperature that ensures viscosity good
enough in order to make ignition possible, and make the combustion
process stabile. The condition of swirler was monitored during each
of influence of waste characteristics on the cutting tool mill
Wandrasz Janusz W., Hryb W.
Both professional literature and catalogues offered by the producers do
not include the operating characteristics of waste recycling equipment
for the various wastes. The objective of the study was to determine the
impact of material properties as well as the size of the mesh sieve on
the effectiveness of work and power consumption of the mill. The
usefulness of such characteristics in the design of the waste
processing facility is presented.
of coke engineering waste
According to the statistical data, from 2000 to 2006, industrial waste
contributed to more than 91% of the total waste in Poland. The data
shows that in period 2000-2006, recycling level of coke engineering
waste (CEW) was: 29,44%; 17,86%; 22,52%; 35,48%; 60,84%; 47,76%; 43,92
respectively. Whereas, landfilling is still the cheapest method of CEW
treatment in Poland. The essential factor, having the influence on
decrease of the waste quantity is their recover subjecting
because the more and more better develop method of waste recover be
worked out. Additional incentive of improvement the efficiency of
cokery as well as achieving the better levels of recycling of coke
engineering waste (CEW) was adaptation EU requirements. Poland had
fulfil requirements connected with limiting air pollution and the
quantities of waste generated by industrial plants.
longitudinal and transverse dispersion for forward and
reverse acting grate
T. J., Borzęcki D.
The relations for
longitudinal and transverse dispersion were found basing on the
The assumption was made that these coefficients depend on following
grate velocity, length of the grate, particle diameter, bulk density,
of the layer, mass flow rate, grate load. Verification of the
coefficients obtained in the experiments was performed by comparison of
concentration of marker on the grate with the concentration
calculated from differential equations with dispersion coefficients
according to author’s formula.
biogas plants and their technology
Janczur K. L., Szymandera Z.
Due to fossil fuels sources shrinking the worldwide politics more and
more decidedly aims at their usage decreasing through alternative
energy production enhancement. Among a wide variety of alternative
energy sources the energy acquiring from biomass of agricultural wastes
through methane production and utilization in biogas plants has been
recently gaining increasing significance and interest. Typical
Aufwind biogas installation functions basing on utilization of such
wastes as: farm animals manure or distillery broth. Biogas – a mixture
in 60% consisting of methane and in 40% of carbon dioxide is secreted
as a result of anaerobic mezofilic fermentation of wastes. The
cogenerative production of electric and thermal energy is achieved in
biogas plant through methane burning by the combustion engines and
through their working heat recycling. The most economic solution to a
problem of millions of tones of agricultural utilization is their usage
for cogenerative energy production. Biogas plants enabling such
production and ecological agricultural wastes treatment have became an
ideal and profitable investments for a entrepreneur such as larger
animal farm or distillery.